Gregory Beale’s nine ways that Revelation uses the OT

  1. John claims that some OT prophecies are directly fulfilled in Revelation
  2. Universalization: items associated with Israel in the OT are applied to the church
  3. John draws analogies between OT passages and Revelation
  4. The universalization of OT passages: golden lampstands and exodus plagues, etc.
  5. Irony: promises applied to Israel are now applied to Gentile believers persecuted by Jewish people (e.g. Rev. 3.9)
  6. John’s book uses much imagery from the OT
  7. Revelation picks up OT themes (creation, judgment, etc)
  8. Revelation uses segments of OT texts as ‘prototypes’ on which to pattern sections of his book
  9. John patterns his style of writing after the OT and even distorts the Greek language to mimic Hebrew patterns, all in order to create a ‘biblical’ effect on his readers

Source: Gregory Beale and Sean M. McDonough, “Revelation”, in Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament. (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2007).

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