Nine verses in Revelation 12 that allude to the OT

  1. In Revelation 12.2 the heavenly woman cries out as she goes into labor pain.
    • Isaiah 66.7 speaks of Jerusalem giving birth to a son, before going into labor.
    • Micah 4.10 tells Jerusalem to writhe in labor, because her people must go to Babylon. But Micah promises that the Lord will rescue her.
  2. Revelation 12.3 introduces a red dragon with ten horns. Daniel 7.7 mentions a beast with ten horns.
  3. In Revelation 12.4 the dragon sweeps a third of the stars from the sky with its tail. In Daniel 8.10 a horn rises up to heaven and threw stars from the sky.
  4. In Revelation 12.5 the woman gives birth to a son who rules over the nations with an iron scepter.
    • Psalm 2.9 speaks of the Son of God ruling over the nations with an iron scepter.
    • Isaiah 7.14 prophesies that a virgin will give birth to a son.
    • Isaiah 66.7 speaks of Jerusalem giving birth to a son, before going into labor.
  5. Revelation 12.7 speaks of a war in heaven between Michael and the dragon, with their respective armies. Daniel 10.13 and 10.21 mention fighting between the prince Michael and the prince of Persia. Daniel 12.1 also speaks of Michael, “the great prince who protects your people”.
  6. In Revelation 12.9 details how the dragon is cast from heaven to earth. In Isaiah 14.12 a morning star that once laid waste the nations was cast down to the earth.
  7. In Revelation 12.10 the dragon is described as an accuser. In Job 1.9-11, Satan accuses Job, and in Zechariah 3.1 Satan accuses Joshua the high priest.
  8. In Revelation 12.14 speaks of “time, times and half a time” (3 and a half years). This time period is mentioned in this way in Daniel 12.7, though in a different context.
  9. Revelation 12.17 the dragon leaves the woman in order to wage war against her children. In Daniel 7. 21 a horn wages war against the saints. Some indexes mention Daniel 7.7 in connection with Revelation 12.17, but this author does not see a clear connection.

Source: The Greek New Testament (UBS, 4th edition), compared with the Old Testament Quotations and Allusions in the New Testament feature in Logos Bible Software version 4.

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