Archive for December, 2010

Ten verses in Revelation 4 that allude to the OT

In Revelation 4.1 a voice from heaven tells John, “Come up here, and I will show you what must take place after this.”

  • In Exodus 19.20 and 19.24 God calls Moses up to the top of Mount Sinai to receive a revelation.
  • In Daniel 2.28-29 and 2.45 Daniel tells Nebuchadnezzar that God has revealed to the king what will take place after this / in later days.

In Revelation 4.2 John sees a throne in heaven, and sees the one seated on the throne.

  • In 1 Kings 22.19 and 2 Chronicles 18.18 Micaiah announces that he saw the Lord sitting on his throne.
  • In Psalm 47.8 says that God sits on his holy throne.
  • In Isaiah 6.1 Isaiah reports that he saw God sitting on a throne.
  • In Ezekiel 1.26-27 Ezekiel sees what looks like a throne with someone with a humanlike figure sitting on it.
  • Sirach 1.8 says that God sits on his throne and is to be feared.

In Revelation 4.3, the one John sees seated on the throne looks like jasper and carnelian, and there is a rainbow around his throne.

  • In Ezekiel 1.26-28 Ezekiel sees a throne of sapphire, and the one seated on the throne  looks like gleaming metal, and there is a brightness around the throne that resembles a rainbow.

In Revelation 4.4 John sees 24 elders around the throne.

  • Isaiah 24.23 says that God reigns in Jerusalem and that his glory will be in the presence of his elders.

In Revelation 4.5 John sees lightning and thunder coming from the throne, and seven burning torches.

  • In Exodus 19.16 there is lightning and thunder ion the mountain when God appears at Mount Sinai.
  • In the Septuagint (Greek) text of Esther 1.1 there is apparently a parallel with Revelation 4.5, but I could not find it when I consulted the NRSV of Greek Esther 1.
  • In Ezekiel 1.13 Ezekiel sees a vision of the throne of God, and lightning pours forth from the living creatures there.
  • In Zechariah 4.2 Zechariah sees a golden lampstand with seven burning lamps on it.

In Revelation 4.6-7 John sees a sea of crystal around the throne, and four living creatures. One creature is like a lion, one is like an ox, one is like a human, and the last is like an eagle.

  • In Ezekiel 1.5-10 Ezekiel sees four living creatures. Each has four faces: a face like a human, a face like a lion, a face like an ox, and a face like an eagle.
  • In Ezekiel 1.22 Ezekiel sees an sheet of crystal over the heads of the living creatures.
  • In Ezekiel 10.14 the creatures have four faces as before, but now the faces are like a cherub, a human, a lion and an eagle.

In Revelation 4.8 the four living creatures have six wings and are covered with eyes. They sing “Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord God Almighty, who was and is and is to come!”

  • In Exodus 3.14 God reveals that his name is “I am who I am”.
  • In Isaiah 6.2-3 Isaiah sees seraphim with six wings who sing “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts.”
  • In Isaiah 41.4 God says “I the Lord, the first; with the last, I am he.”
  • In Ezekiel 1.18 and 10.12 the living creatures Ezekiel sees are covered with eyes.
  • In Amos 3.13 and 4.13, God is described as the Lord, God, the God of hosts.

In Revelation 4.9 is a second reference to the one seated on the throne. He is described as one who ‘lives forever and ever’.

  • In 1 Kings 22.19 and 2 Chronicles 18.18 Micaiah announces that he saw the Lord sitting on his throne.
  • In Psalm 47.8 says that God sits on his holy throne.
  • In Isaiah 6.1 Isaiah reports that he saw God sitting on a throne.
  • In Ezekiel 1.26-27 Ezekiel sees what looks like a throne with someone with a humanlike figure sitting on it.
  • Sirach 1.8 says that God sits on his throne and is to be feared.
  • In Daniel 4.34, 6.26 and 12.7 God is described as the one who lives forever, the one whose kingdom will never be destroyed, and whose dominion will never end.

In Revelation 4.10 is the third reference to the one seated on the throne.

  • In 1 Kings 22.19 and 2 Chronicles 18.18 Micaiah announces that he saw the Lord sitting on his throne.
  • In Psalm 47.8 says that God sits on his holy throne.
  • In Isaiah 6.1 Isaiah reports that he saw God sitting on a throne.
  • In Ezekiel 1.26-27 Ezekiel sees what looks like a throne with someone with a humanlike figure sitting on it.
  • Sirach 1.8 says that God sits on his throne and is to be feared.

Source: The Greek New Testament (UBS, 4th edition), compared with the Old Testament Quotations and Allusions in the New Testament feature in Logos Bible Software version 4.

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Ten verses in Revelation 5 that allude to the OT

In Revelation 5.1 the one seated on the throne has a book sealed with seven seals.

  • In 1 Kings 22.19 and 2 Chronicles 18.18 Micaiah announces that he saw the Lord sitting on his throne.
  • In Psalm 47.8 says that God sits on his holy throne.
  • In Isaiah 6.1 Isaiah reports that he saw God sitting on a throne.
  • In Ezekiel 1.26-27 Ezekiel sees what looks like a throne with someone with a humanlike figure sitting on it.
  • Sirach 1.8 says that God sits on his throne and is to be feared.
  • Isaiah 29.11 compares a vision from God to the words of a book that is sealed.

In Revelation 5.5 one of the 24 elders tells John that Jesus is the Lion of the tribe of Judah and the Root of David, and that he has triumphed.

  • Genesis 49.9-10 compares Judah to a lion and says that the scepter will not depart from Judah until he has conquered all the peoples and receives tribute from them.
  • Isaiah 11.1 and 11.10 prophesy a shoot or branch that will come from the stump of Jesse (David’s father), bearing fruit and acting as a sign to the nations.

In Revelation 5.6 John sees a Lamb that had been slain, with seven eyes, before God’s throne.

  • Isaiah 53.7 compares the Servant of the Lord to a lamb being led to the slaughterhouse.
  • In Zechariah 4.10 the seven lamps from verse 2 are identified as the seven eyes of the Lord.

In Revelation 5.7 is another reference to the one seated on the throne.

  • In 1 Kings 22.19 and 2 Chronicles 18.18 Micaiah announces that he saw the Lord sitting on his throne.
  • In Psalm 47.8 says that God sits on his holy throne.
  • In Isaiah 6.1 Isaiah reports that he saw God sitting on a throne.
  • In Ezekiel 1.26-27 Ezekiel sees what looks like a throne with someone with a humanlike figure sitting on it.
  • Sirach 1.8 says that God sits on his throne and is to be feared.

In Revelation 5.8 John sees the 24 elders with bowls of incense, which he says represents the prayers of the saints.

  • Psalm 141.2 also compares prayers to incense.

In Revelation 5.9 the elders and the living creatures sing a new song because he has taken people from every tribe, language, people and nation.

  • Psalm 33.3, 96.1, 98.1, and 149.1 exhort the listener to sing a new song.
  • In Psalm 40.3 the psalmist affirms that God will put a new song in his mouth.
  • In Psalm 144.9 the psalmist promises to sing a new song.
  • Isaiah 42.10 exhorts people all the way to the ends of the earth, and the mariners and the inhabitants of the coastlands (i.e., all the nations) to sing a new song.

In Revelation 5.10 the elders and the living creatures sing that God has taken people from every nation and has made them a kingdom of priests, and they will reign on the earth.

  • In Exodus 19.6 it is Israel that is made a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.
  • Isaiah 61.6 comforts the exiles in Babylon and tells them that the nations will call them God’s priests and ministers. They will eat the wealth of the nations.

In Revelation 5.11 John says that the number of angels around the throne is myriads of myriads (ten thousands of ten thousands) and thousands of thousands.

  • Daniel 7.10 says that Daniel saw thousands of thousands serving God before his throne, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him to be judged.

In Revelation 5.12 the living creatures, elders and multitude sing, “Worthy is the Lamb who was slain, to receive power and wealth and wisdom and might and honor and glory and blessing!”

  • 1 Chronicles 29.11 sings, “Yours, O LORD, is the greatness and the power and the glory and the victory and the majesty….”
  • Isaiah 53.7 compares the Servant of the Lord to a lamb led to the slaughterhouse.

Revelation 5.13 is another reference to the one who is seated on the throne.

  • In 1 Kings 22.19 and 2 Chronicles 18.18 Micaiah announces that he saw the Lord sitting on his throne.
  • In Psalm 47.8 says that God sits on his holy throne.
  • In Isaiah 6.1 Isaiah reports that he saw God sitting on a throne.
  • In Ezekiel 1.26-27 Ezekiel sees what looks like a throne with someone with a humanlike figure sitting on it.
  • Sirach 1.8 says that God sits on his throne and is to be feared.

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Three verses in Revelation 3.7-13 that allude to the OT

In Revelation 3.7, Jesus presents himself as the one who has the key of David. What he opens, no one can shut, and what he shuts, no one can open.

  • In Isaiah 22.22 God says he will give the key of David to Eliakim (the manager of King Hezekeiah’s household), and what he opens, no one can shut, and what he shuts, no one can open.
  • Job 12.14 says that if God tears something down, human beings can’t build it back up, and if God closes a man in, no one can open.

In Revelation 3.9 Jesus tells the church in Philadelphia that he will make the members of the ‘synagogue of Satan’ bow down before their feet and recognize that he has loved the members of the church in Philadelphia.

  • In Isaiah 43.4 God tells Israel that he loves her.
  • In Isaiah 45.14 God says that the Egyptians, Cushites and Sabeans will one day bow before the Israelites and plead with them, recognizing that God is with the Israelites.
  • In Isaiah 49.23 God says that kings and queens will bow down before the Israelites and lick their feet. Then the Israelites will recognize that Yahweh is God.
  • In Isaiah 60.14 God says that the children of those who afflicted Jerusalem will bow down before her and recognize her as the city of God.

In Revelation 3.12 Jesus promises that upon the one who conquers, he will write his own name, and the name of the city of his God.

  • In Isaiah 62.2 Isaiah says that the mouth of the Lord will give Jerusalem a new name.
  • In Isaiah 65.15 Isaiah says that God will one day call his servants by another name.
  • In Ezekiel 48.35, part of Ezekiel’s vision of a future Jerusalem, Ezekiel hears that the name of the city is ‘The Lord is there’.

Source: The Greek New Testament (UBS, 4th edition), compared with the Old Testament Quotations and Allusions in the New Testament feature in Logos Bible Software version 4.

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